In this text, we want to explain briefly the structure of Domains.
To show it in detail, we use in this case
which is fully called a “the domain”. When you talk about a domain, you talk from back to front (which is the confusing thing about explaining TLDs and domain:
So, the last part of a domain is called top-level domain (TLD). It is the part of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchy of the Domain Name System. The top-level domain names are installed in the root zone of the name space.
For all domains in lower levels, it is the last part of the domain name, that is, the last label of a fully qualified domain name. In oure example it’s the .uk.
Responsibility for management of most top-level domains is delegated to specific organizations by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), which operates the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and is in charge of maintaining the DNS root zone.
The official list of all top-level domains is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) at the Root Zone Database. IANA also manages the process for new proposed top-level domains. As of February 2017, the root domain contains 1528 top-level domains, while a few have been retired and are no longer functional.
The differnt types of TLDs are:
- Generic Top Level Domain (gTLD) are now classified as top level domains with three or more characters. For example .com or .info
- Restricted Generic Top Level Domains (grTLD) are generic TLD’s that are reserved for a particular use. For example .gov for the U.S government and .edu is for the department of education.
- Country Code Top Level Domain (ccTLD): These are two letter TLD’s that represent specific countries or regions go by the two letter ISO code of that country/region. (e.g. .us for the USA or .de for Germany (Deutschland))
- Internationalized country code top level domains (IDN ccTLD) are country code TLD’s that use letters other than Latin. For example, Chinese, Arrabic, Hebrew.
- Sponsored Top Level Domain (sTLD or nTLD) are a specialized top level domain that has been sponsored by a certain organization or agency that represents the specific community that is most affected and involved with the TLD. For example .xyz and .team
So the Top Level is the last part, the 2nd level is mostly the name itselves (example on the www.domain-names.xyz ) but in our case, and it’s the “.co” which pulls the name “hosting” on the 3rd Level.